Army Locus of Control Scale

Army Locus of Control Scale (Army- LOC)
David R. Hunter‚ John E. Stewart‚ 2009
مقیاس کانون مهار در هوانوردی ارتشی
  1. If Aviators follow all the rules and regulations‚ they can avoid many aviation accidents.
  2. Accidents are usually caused by unsafe equipment and inadequate maintenance.
  3. Aviators should be reprimanded if they periodically neglect to use safety devices (for example‚ seat belts‚ checklists‚ etc.) that are required by Army Regulations.
  4. Accidents and injuries occur because Aviators do not take enough interest in safety.
  5. Avoiding accidents is a matter of Luck.
  6. Most accidents and incidents can be avoided if Aviators use proper procedures.
  7. Most accidents and injuries cannot be avoided.
  8. Most accidents are due to Aviators’ carelessness.
  9. Most Aviators will be involved in accidents or incidents which result in aircraft damage or personal injury.
  10. Aviators should be punished if they have an accident or incident while "horsing around".
  11. Most accidents that result in injuries are largely preventable.
  12. Aviators can do very little to avoid minor incidents while flying their missions.
  13. Whether people get injured or not is a matter of fate‚ chance‚ or Luck.
  14. Aviators' accidents and injuries result from the mistakes they make.
  15. Most accidents can be blamed on poor command oversight.
  16. Most injuries are caused by accidental happenings outside people's control.
  17. People can avoid getting injured if they are careful and aware of potential dangers.
  18. It is more important to complete a mission than to follow a safety precaution that costs more time.
  19. There is a direct connection between how careful Aviators are and the number of accidents they have.
  20. Most accidents are unavoidable.
  21. No matter how hard Aviators try to prevent them‚ there will always be accidents.
  22. There are so many dangers in this world that you never know how or when you might be in an accident.
  23. Most Aviators never think about safety during their flights.
  24. In the end‚ whether I am in an accident depends on my skills and abilities.
  25. If you keep your wits about you‚ success is always possible.
  26. I’d rather be Lucky than good.
  27. Sometimes you get the bear‚ sometimes the bear gets you.
  28. Stuff just happens.
  29. Some people are just destined to be in an accident.
  30. If I get in a difficult situation‚ it is my own behavior that determines if I make it out OK.
  31. No matter what I do‚ if I am going to have an accident‚ I will have an accident.
  32. Getting regular training and practice is the best way for me to avoid an accident.
  33. I am in control of my life.
  34. When I make a mistake‚ I am to blame.
  35. Luck plays a big part in determining whether you will be in an accident.
  36. My success in aviation is largely a matter of good fortune.
  37. If I take care of myself‚ I can avoid accidents.
  38. The main thing that affects my safety is what I myself do.
  39. No matter what I do‚ I’m likely to have an accident.
  40. If it’s meant to be‚ I will be safe and not have an accident.
  41. If I take the right actions‚ I can avoid accidents.
  42. Regarding safety‚ I can only do what the Army tells me to do.
  43. Whether or not I get into an accident depends mostly on how good a pilot I am.
  44. To a great extent‚ what happens to me in life is outside my control.
  45. If I get what I want‚ it is because I worked for it.
  46. It is my ability and determination that will determine whether I am in an accident.
  47. I am careful to check everything on the aircraft before I depart on a mission.
  48. Often there is no way to protect myself from the effects of bad Luck.
  49. Much of the time when I am successful‚ it is because I am Lucky.
  50. I believe I have control over my own destiny.
  51. The decisions made by other people will largely determine if I am in an accident.
  52. Whether or not I get into an accident is mostly a matter of Luck.
  53. Whether or not I get into an accident depends mostly on other people.
  54. Whether or not I get into an accident depends mostly on things that I cannot control‚ like the weather.
  55. I do not really believe in Luck.
  56. My success is mainly a matter of chance.
  57. Chance has a lot to do with avoiding accidents.
  58. Being at the wrong place at the wrong time is what causes accidents.
  59. You cannot control your destiny.
  60. Bad Luck is what gets many pilots into trouble.
  61. If something is meant to happen there is nothing you can do to change it.
  62. The idea that Luck determines what happens to you is ridiculous.
  63. You are responsible for the things that happen to you in your life.
  64. If I have an accident‚ it’s because I didn’t try hard enough.
  65. If I have an accident‚ It’s because I was not careful enough.
  66. If I try hard enough‚ I can get out of any situation.
  67. Safety is due to effort‚ not Luck.
  68. Accidents could be eliminated‚ if pilots made more of an effort.
  69. Chance has nothing to do with being safe.
  70. If I have a close call‚ it just means I have to work harder next time.
  71. I feel completely in control‚ all the time.
  72. I never blame others for my problems.
  73. I have little influence over the things that happen to me.
  74. I am superstitious.
  75. Accidents are really beyond anybody’s control – they just happen.
  76. I can prepare myself to deal with the mistakes of others.
  77. When a person fails‚ it is almost always their own fault.
  78. A person’s destiny determines what happens to them
  79. At some point a person must accept the inevitable and face their fate calmly
  80. I feel that there is some higher power looking out for me
  81. There are no problems that cannot be overcome with enough effort
  82. If I had an accident‚ it would be the result of bad Luck.
  83. I'll die when it's my time to go‚ but not before.
  84. In a tight situation‚ I trust to fate.
  85. In flying‚ what will be‚ will be.
  86. Most of the time accidents are caused by things beyond the Aviator's control.
  87. Sometimes you just have to depend on Luck to get you through.
  88. Successful flying is partly a matter of good Luck.
  89. You don't go until your number is up.
Internality Scale Items
1.            If I take the right actions‚ I can avoid accidents.
2.            If I have an accident‚ It’s because I was not careful enough.
3.            If I have a close call‚ it just means I have to work harder next time.
4.            Safety is due to effort‚ not Luck
5.            If I take care of myself‚ I can avoid accidents
6.            It is my ability and determination that will determine whether I am in an accident.
7.            Most accidents that result in injuries are largely preventable
8.            I am in control of my life
9.            I believe I have control over my own destiny
10.         You are responsible for the things that happen to you in your life
11.         There are no problems that cannot be overcome with enough effort
12.         The main thing that affects my safety is what I myself do
13.         If Aviators follow all the rules and regulations‚ they can avoid many aviation accidents.
14.         Most accidents and incidents can be avoided if Aviators use proper procedures.
15.         There is a direct connection between how careful Aviators are and the number of accidents they have
Externality Scale Items
1.            Whether or not I get into an accident is mostly a matter of Luck.
2.            Luck plays a big part in determining whether you will be in an accident.
3.            If something is meant to happen there is nothing you can do to change it.
4.            In flying‚ what will be‚ will be.
5.            In a tight situation‚ I trust to fate.
6.            Sometimes you just have to depend on Luck to get you through.
7.            Chance has a lot to do with avoiding accidents.
8.            Bad Luck is what gets many pilots into trouble.
9.            Being at the wrong place at the wrong time is what causes accidents.
10.         My success is mainly a matter of chance.
11.         No matter what I do‚ I’m likely to have an accident
12.         A person’s destiny determines what happens to them
13.         Successful flying is partly a matter of good Luck.
14.         Much of the time when I am successful‚ it is because I am Lucky.
15.         My success in aviation is largely a matter of good fortune.
شرح سایت روان سنجی: این مقیاس یکی از چهار مقیاس برای مطالعه خلبانان ارتشی است.
(1) Army Hazardous Events Scale‚ (2) Army Locus of Control Scale‚ (3) Army Safety Attitudes Scale‚ and (4) Army Aviation Scenarios
این مقیاس درونی یا ببرونی بودن پیامدها را از دید خلبانان اندازه گیری می کند. دارای شش مولفه: شانس، بیرونی، درونی، علت سانحه، تقدیر و سرنوشت، واگذاری است.
Luck‚ Externality‚ Internality‚ Accident Causality‚ Fate‚ and Resignation
Component 1 Luck
1.            Successful flying is partly a matter of good luck
2.            Sometimes you just have to depend on luck to get you through
3.            I do not really believe in luck
4.            If I had an accident‚ it would be the result of bad luck
5.            Chance has a lot to do with avoiding accidents
6.            Whether or not I get into an accident is mostly a matter of luck
7.            Luck plays a big part in determining whether you will be in an accident
8.            I am superstitious
9.            Much of the time when I am successful‚ it is because I am lucky
10.         The idea that luck determines what happens to you is ridiculous
11.         I’d rather be lucky than good
12.         At some point a person must accept the inevitable and face their fate calmly
13.         A person’s destiny determines what happens to them
14.         Bad luck is what gets many pilots into trouble
15.         My success is mainly a matter of chance
 
Component 2 Externality
1.            Most of the time accidents are caused by things beyond the
2.            Aviator's control
3.            No matter what I do‚ I’m likely to have an accident
4.            My success in aviation is largely a matter of good fortune
5.            Whether or not I get into an accident is mostly a matter of luck
6.            Most injuries are caused by accidental happenings outside people's control
7.            Avoiding accidents is a matter of luck
8.            Bad luck is what gets many pilots into trouble
9.            Most accidents are unavoidable
10.         Whether or not I get into an accident depends mostly on other people
11.         Most accidents and injuries cannot be avoided
12.         No matter what I do‚ if I am going to have an accident‚ I will have an accident
13.         Aviators can do very little to avoid minor incidents while flying their missions
14.         Whether or not I get into an accident depends mostly on things that I cannot control‚ like the weather
15.         Whether people get injured or not is a matter of fate‚ chance‚ or luck
16.         Regarding safety‚ I can only do what the Army tells me to do
 
Component 3 Internality
1.            I am in control of my life
2.            I believe I have control over my own destiny
3.            If I get in a difficult situation‚ it is my own behavior that determines if I make it out OK
4.            If I get what I want‚ it is because I worked for it
5.            If I take care of myself‚ I can avoid accidents
6.            I feel completely in control‚ all the time
7.            You are responsible for the things that happen to you in your life
8.            If I try hard enough‚ I can get out of any situation
9.            If I take the right actions‚ I can avoid accidents
10.         Getting regular training and practice is the best way for me to avoid an accident
11.         I am careful to check everything on the aircraft before I depart on a mission
12.         It is my ability and determination that will determine whether I am in an accident
13.         When I make a mistake‚ I am to blame
14.         If I have a close call‚ it just means I have to work harder next time
15.         Safety is due to effort‚ not luck
 
Component 4 – Accident Causality
1.            Most accidents are due to Aviators’ carelessness
2.            If I have an accident‚ It’s because I was not careful enough
3.            Accidents and injuries occur because Aviators do not take enough interest in safety
4.            Aviators' accidents and injuries result from the mistakes they make
5.            If I have an accident‚ it’s because I didn’t try hard enough
6.            Most accidents that result in injuries are largely preventable
7.            Accidents could be eliminated‚ if pilots made more of an effort
8.            There is a direct connection between how careful Aviators are and the number of accidents they have
 
Component 5 - Destiny
1.            I'll die when it's my time to go‚ but not before
2.            You don't go until your number is up
3.            I feel that there is some higher power looking out for me
4.            A person’s destiny determines what happens to them
5.            If something is meant to happen there is nothing you can do to change it
6.            In flying‚ what will be‚ will be
7.            In a tight situation‚ I trust to fate
8.            At some point a person must accept the inevitable and face their fate calmly
9.            If you keep your wits about you‚ success is always possible
 
Component 6 - Resignation
1.            No matter how hard Aviators try to prevent them‚ there will always be accidents
2.            If I try hard enough‚ I can get out of any situation
3.            There are so many dangers in this world that you never know how or when you might be in an accident
4.            There are no problems that cannot be overcome with enough effort
5.            Aviators should be punished if they have an accident or incident while "horsing around
6.            Aviators should be reprimanded if they periodically neglect to use safety devices (for example‚ seat belts‚ checklists‚ etc.) that are required by Army Regulations
7.            Sometimes you get the bear‚ sometimes the bear gets you
8.            Most Aviators will be involved in accidents or incidents which result in aircraft damage or personal injury
9.            Stuff just happens
اعتبار: برای آگاهی از ویژگی های روان سنجی به متن لینک داده شده (چگونگی دستیابی) مراجعه کنید.
Components (alpha): Luck (.89)‚ Externality (.87)‚ Internality (.85)‚ Accident Causality (.82)‚ Fate (.81)‚ and Resignation (.60)
The 15-item Internality Scale had an Alpha = .83; while the 15-item Externality Scale had an Alpha = .92.
نمره گذاری
a. a. Strongly Agree‚ b. Agree‚ c. Neither agree nor disagree‚ d. Disagree‚ e. Strongly Disagree
چگونگی دستیابی
This instrument can be found at: www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA509824
منبع و ماخذ
David R. Hunter‚ John E. Stewart‚ 2009. Locus of Control‚ Risk Orientation‚ and Decision Making Among U.S. Army Aviators. United States Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.
Hunter‚ D.R. (2006). Risk perception among general aviation pilots. International Journal of Aviation Psychology‚ 16‚ 135-144.
Hunter‚ D.R. (2004). Measurement of hazardous attitudes among pilots. International Journal of Aviation Psychology‚ 15‚ 23-43.
Hunter‚ D. R. (2002). Risk perception and risk tolerance in aircraft pilots (Report DOT/FAA/AM–02/17). Washington‚ DC: Federal Aviation Administration.
Hunter‚ D. R. (2002). Development of an aviation safety locus of control scale. Aviation‚ Space‚ and Environmental Medicine‚ 73‚ 1184-1188.
Hunter‚ D.R. (1995). Airman research questionnaire: Methodology and overall results. DOT/FAA/AM-95/27. Washington‚ DC: Federal Aviation Administration.
   
خرداد 1396
اسفند 1395
آبان 1395
فروردین 1394
خرداد 1393
فروردین 1393
اسفند 1392
بهمن 1392
دی 1390
آذر 1390
تیر 1390
خرداد 1390
اردیبهشت 1390
بهمن 1389
دی 1389
اردیبهشت 1389
دی 1388
آبان 1388
شهریور 1388
مرداد 1388
تیر 1388
خرداد 1388
   
اگر آوازت زیبا و دلنشین باشد ، حتی اگر در بیابان باشی ، کسی را خواهی یافت که به آوازت گوش فرا دهد . (؟)
   
کلیه حقوق به آرین آرانی متعلق است.