Panic and Agoraphobia Scale

Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS)
Bandelow‚ Borwin‚ (1995)
مقیاس هراس و برزن هراسی
Panic attacks are sudden outbursts of anxiety‚ accompanied by one or more of the following symptoms:
·         palpitations‚ pounding heart‚ or increased heart rate
·         sweating
·         trembling or shaking
·         dry mouth
·         difficulty breathing
·         feeling of choking
·         chest pain or discomfort
·         nausea or abdominal distress (churning in stomach)
·         feeling dizzy‚ unsteady‚ faint‚ or light-headed
·         feelings that objects are unreal (like in a dream)
·         fear of losing control‚ “going crazy‚” or passing out
·         fear of dying
·         hot flushes or cold chills
·         numbness‚ or tingling sensations
Panic attacks develop suddenly and increase in intensity within about 10 minutes.
 
1- How frequently did you have panic attacks?
·         no panic attacks in the past week
·         1 panic attack in the past week
·         2-3 panic attacks in the past week
·         4-6 panic attacks in the past week
·         more than 6 panic attacks in the past week
2- How severe were the panic attacks in the last week?
·         no panic attacks
·         attacks were usually mild
·         attacks were usually moderate
·         attacks were usually severe
·         attacks were usually extremely severe
3- How long did the panic attacks last?
·         no panic attacks
·         1 to 10 minutes
·         10 to 60 minutes
·         1 to 2 hours
·         over 2 hours
4- Were most of the attacks expected (occurring in feared situations) or unexpected (spontaneous)?
·         mostly unexpected (or no panic attacks)
·         more unexpected than expected
·         some unexpected‚ some expected
·         more expected than unexpected
·         mostly expected
5- In the past week‚ did you avoid certain situations because you feared ha‎ving a panic attack or a feeling of discomfort?
·         no avoidance (or my attacks don’t occur in specific situations
·         infrequent avoidance of feared situations
·         occasional avoidance of feared situations
·         frequent avoidance of feared situations
·         very frequent avoidance of feared situations
6- Please check the situation(s) you avoided or in which you developed panic attacks or a feeling of discomfort when you are not accompanied:
·         Airplanes
·         Subways (underground)
·         Buses‚ trains
·         Ships
·         Theaters‚ cinemas
·         Supermarkets
·         Standing in lines (queues)
·         Auditoriums‚ stadiums
·         Parties‚ social gatherings
·         Crowds
·         Restaurants
·         Museums
·         Elevators (lifts)
·         Enclosed spaces (tunnels)
·         Classrooms‚ lecture halls
·         Driving or riding in a car
·         Large rooms (lobbies)
·         Walking on the street
·         Fluids‚ wide streets‚ courtyards
·         High places
·         Crossing bridges
·         Travelling away from home
·         Staying home alone
·         Other
7- How important were the avoided situations?
·         unimportant (or no agoraphobia)
·         not very important
·         moderately important
·         very important
·         extremely important
8- In the past week‚ did you suffer from the fear of ha‎ving a panic attack (anticipatory anxiety or “fear of being afraid?”)
·         no anticipatory anxiety
·         infrequent fear of ha‎ving a panic attack
·         sometimes fear ha‎ving a panic attack
·         frequent fear of ha‎ving a panic attack
·         fear ha‎ving a panic attack all the time
9- How strong was this “fear of fear?”
·         none
·         mild
·         moderate
·         marked
·         extreme
10- In the past week‚ did panic attacks or agoraphobia lead to an impairment in your family relationships (partner‚ children‚ etc.)?
·         no impairment
·         mild impairment
·         moderate impairment
·         marked impairment
·         extreme impairment
11- In the past week‚ did panic attacks or agoraphobia lead to an impairment of your social life and leisure activities (for example‚ you weren’t able to go a film or party)?
·         no impairment
·         mild impairment
·         moderate impairment
·         marked impairment
·         extreme impairment
12- In the past week‚ did panic attacks or agoraphobia lead to an impairment of your work or household responsibilities?
·         no impairment
·         mild impairment
·         moderate impairment
·         marked impairment
·         extreme impairment
13- In the past week‚ did you worry about suffering harm from your panic attacks (for example‚ ha‎ving a heart attack or fainting)?
·         not true
·         hardly true
·         partly true
·         mostly true
·         definitely true
14- Do you sometimes believe that your doctor was wrong when he told you your symptoms (like rapid heart rate‚ tingling sensations‚ or shortness of breath) have a psychological cause? Do you believe the actually cause of these symptoms is an undiscovered physical problem?
·         not true (rather psychic disease)
·         hardly true
·         partly true
·         mostly true
·         definitely true (rather organic disease)
شرح سایت روان سنجی: این مقیاس برای اندازه گیری شدت بیماری نزد دارندگان اختلال هراس (با یا بدون برزن هراسی) است. پنج خرده مقیاس: حمله های هراس، پرهیز از برزن هراسی، اضطراب انتظاری، ناتوانی و نگرانی های بهداشتی دارد.
Panic attacks‚ agoraphobic avoidance‚ anticipatory anxiety‚ disability‚ and functional avoidance (health concerns)
Cronbach’s α .86 for the total score and .66-.82 for the subscales were reported. A mean score of 23.5 (SD = 10.3) was observed in a sample of 425 PD/AG patients (Bandelow‚ 1999).
چگونگی دستیابی
This instrument can be found at: https://psychology-tools.com/
منبع برای آگاهی بیشتر
Bandelow B. 1995. Assessing the Efficacy of Treatments for Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia. II. The Panic and Agoraphobia Scale. International Clinical Psychopharmacology‚ 10(2)2;73-81.
Bandelow B. (1999) The Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS) Hogrefe & Huber Publishing.
Bandelow B‚ Broocks A‚ Pekrun G‚ et al. 2000. The use of the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (P & A) in a controlled clinical trial. Pharmacopsychiatry ‚33(5):174-81
R Lam‚ EE Michalak‚ RP Swinson. 2004. Assessment Scales in Depression‚ Mania And Anxiety‚ 136-140.
   
خرداد 1396
اسفند 1395
آبان 1395
فروردین 1394
خرداد 1393
فروردین 1393
اسفند 1392
بهمن 1392
دی 1390
آذر 1390
تیر 1390
خرداد 1390
اردیبهشت 1390
بهمن 1389
دی 1389
اردیبهشت 1389
دی 1388
آبان 1388
شهریور 1388
مرداد 1388
تیر 1388
خرداد 1388
   
هرکه بر ضرر مومن داستانی بگوید و قصدش عیب او و ریختن آبرویش باشد که از چشم مردم بیفتد ، خداوند اورا از دوستی خود به دوستی شیطان براند و شیطان هم او را نپذیرد : حضرت امام صادق (ع)
   
کلیه حقوق به آرین آرانی متعلق است.